Use the tabs below to learn more about some common orthopaedic injuries and problems
The knee joint is composed of the ends of the femur (thigh bone), tibia (shin bone), and patella (knee cap). Knee pain and injuries are common in athletes and active patients and often occur from overuse, a sudden twisting movement, or landing awkwardly from a jump. Many knee injuries can be treated without surgery using physical therapy, over the counter anti-inflammatories, and bracing.
Dr. Todd treats injuries around the knee including ACL tears, MCL tears, PCL tears, LCL tears, Patella Dislocations, Meniscus tears, Cartilage Injuries, and nonoperative management of knee arthritis.
Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) tears are common injuries amongst young activities and are especially common in soccer, volleyball, and football players. The ACL acts to stabilize the knee during twisting and pivoting movements. Unfortunately, the ACL does not have the ability to ‘heal’ on its own, and when it is torn typically requires surgery to replace the ligament. A variety of grafts can be used including autografts (the patient’s own tissue) or allografts (donated tissue) depending on the patient’s age and activity level.
Our knees have medial (inside) and lateral (outside) menisci which act to cushion the joint against impact. Our menisci can be torn when the knee is twisted during activities and as we age, our menisci become more prone to injury. Many meniscus injuries do not require surgery, as physical therapy can be an effective tool for decreasing pain and restoring patients to normal function following meniscus injury. In the event that a meniscus tear needs surgery, the treatment depends on the tear pattern and location, In some cases trimming out the torn portion allows patients to return to normal function and activities quickly. Other times, for larger tears, repairing the meniscus is the best option.
Patella (kneecap) dislocations are common injuries in younger patients. When the patella dislocates, it damages the stabilizing structures for the patella and can result in damage to the cartilage in the knee. Restoring stability to the patella is important to prevent additional dislocations or subluxations (partial dislocations). Similar to shoulder dislocations, younger patients are at higher risk for redislocation. Through a combination of physical therapy, activity modifications, bracing, and surgery for recurrent dislocations we can restore patella stability.
If you are experiencing knee pain, or injured your knee, contact us to set up an appointment today.
The hip joint is a ‘ball and socket’ joint composed of the thigh bone (femur) as the ball and the pelvis (acetabulum) as the cup. Ideally, the hip would be a perfectly round ‘ball on a stick.’ In reality, nobody has a perfectly shaped hip due to the way we grow and develop when we are young, and that’s OK! That’s because most hip pain is due to overuse injuries and strain on the muscles surrounding the hip joint, not due to the ‘ball and socket’ themselves. In cases where hip shape is causing pain, we can reshape the hip and repair the labrum and cartilage to relieve symptoms.
Dr. Todd is a hip arthroscopy (scope) specialist and treats femoroacetabular impingement (hip impingement) with labrum tears, hip instability due to capsular insufficiency, trochanteric bursitis and gluteus medius tendon tears.
Femoroacetabular Impingement (Hip Impingement)
Hip impingement is due to the ‘ball and socket’ not being as round as it should be which results in ‘pinching’ (impingement) of the bones against the soft tissues around the hip. This repetitive ‘pinching’ results in pain in the groin which often occurs during prolonged sitting, activities where the hip is flexed, and athletics. Over time, this can result in damage to the hip labrum and cartilage. These symptoms can often be improved with physical therapy, anti-inflammatories, and modifying activities. In cases where the symptoms persist, hip arthroscopy to reshape the hip, repair the labrum, and repair the capsule can help relieve the symptoms.
Gluteus Medius Tear
A gluteus medius tear is a severe strain on the gluteus medius muscle that results in partial or complete tear of the gluteus medius tendon. It is often characterized by pain on the outside (lateral) of the hip with walking and weakness on testing the gluteus medius muscle. Treatment consists of physical therapy, strengthening, and injections, with surgery reserved for complete tears or persistent pain and weakness.
If you are experiencing hip pain or injured your hip contact us to set up an appointment today.
The shoulder is the most mobile joint in the body and is composed of the bones of the humerus, scapula (shoulder blade), and clavicle (collar bone) interacting with 16 different muscles, including the rotator cuff muscles, to allow free movement.
Injuries to the shoulder can occur from repetitive stresses such as weight lifting, working with the hands above the head, and repetitive movements in sports or acute injuries from a fall, contact sports, or catching/lifting a sudden heavy load. The majority of shoulder injuries can be treated without surgery using a combination of shoulder exercises, physical therapy, modifying activities, and using over the counter anti-inflammatories. However, persistent pain or weakness sometimes requires surgery to correct the problem.
Dr. Todd treats injuries around the shoulder including impingement/overuse injuries, rotator cuff tears, fractures, arthritis, shoulder dislocations, acromioclavicular joint (AC Joint) pain, biceps tendon injuries and SLAP tears, labrum tears, and a myriad of other problems about the shoulder.
Impingement syndrome, or subacromial bursitis, is inflammation of the shoulder due to repetitive overhead arm movements which cause rubbing of the shoulder muscles against the top part of the shoulder blade, the acromion. Impingement syndrome is effectively treated with anti-inflammatories, shoulder strengthening exercises, activity modifications, and occasionally steroid injections.
Rotator Cuff Tears
The rotator cuff is composed of 4 muscles (supraspinatus, infraspinatus, subscapularis, and teres minor) which help stabilize and initiate shoulder movement. As we age and use our shoulders we create natural wear on our rotator cuff muscles and tendons which can cause pain. With strengthening exercises many of these problems can be resolved. However, an acute injury to the shoulder can cause a tear of the rotator cuff resulting in pain and weakness which may require surgery to repair.
Shoulder Dislocations/Labrum Tears
Because the shoulder is the most mobile joint in the body, it is also the most frequently dislocated. Shoulder dislocations, which often occur during contact sports or from falls, stretch out and damage the labrum and stabilizing tissues of the shoulder. Restoring stability to the shoulder is important to prevent additional dislocations or subluxations (partial dislocations) which can further damage the shoulder. Younger patients (i.e. teenagers) are at particularly high risk for recurrent dislocations. Through a combination of physical therapy, activity modifications, bracing, and surgery for recurrent dislocations we can restore shoulder stability.
Acromioclavicular Joint Pain/Injuries
The Acromioclavicular Joint (aka the AC Joint) is where the clavicle (collar bone) meets the acromion of the scapula. It is frequently injured in contact sports, falls, and with repetitive overhead movements and activities. The majority of patients we see for AC joint pain do not need surgery. If the joint is dislocated or the pain is not relieved with non-surgical treatments then stabilizing the joint or ‘cleaning it out’ with surgery is effective at relieving symptoms.
The shoulder joint tolerates arthritis very well thanks to the fact that we don’t walk on our hands! A combination of home exercises, stretching, physical therapy, and injections is often effective at relieving shoulder pain due to arthritis. However, in some cases the arthritis becomes severe enough that replacing the shoulder is an effective treatment to relieve pain and restore function.
If you are experiencing shoulder pain, or injured your shoulder, contact us to set up an appointment today.